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Species:
Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Valid Name:
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Parent taxa:             Genus / Family / Order / Superorder / Subclass / Class
Cephalodella: Notommatidae: Ploima: Pseudotrocha: Monogononta: Eurotatoria
Taxonomic / nomenclatural notes:
• not Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg) after Stenroos (1898) [Ref.17586] [=C. stenroosi Wulfert], Koste (1976 partim:pl.7, fig.2) [Ref.10414] [=Cephalodella tenuiseta (Burn)].
• Koste's (1976) (op. cit.) trophi-figure of C. tenuiseta, sub C. forficula, has apparently been mislabeled.
• The original combination under which this species name was established was hitherto taken to be Distemma forficula Ehrenberg, 1830. As Ehrenberg points out himself in his 'Infusionsthierchen' of 1838 [Ref.15546], however, Distemma forficula "ist der Furcularia forficula sehr nahe verwandt, hat aber 2 deutliche rothe Augen im Nacken" (p.449, cf. pl.56, fig.2). This clearly contrasts with the bright red frontal eye of Furcularia forficula, as described and figured by Ehrenberg in the same work (p.421, pl.48, fig.5).
Nomenclatural status:
name in current use
Species group name declinable:
no
Validity:
valid
Taxon Rank:
Species
Availability:
available
Original Combination:
Furcularia forficula
Original Spelling:
Furcularia forficula
Latest Revision:
Nogrady, T;R Pourriot (1995): Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the world. Vol. 8: 1-229, 239-248
Page last modified on: 29.10.2015 by C.D. Jersabek
Original description
 
Ehrenberg, C G (1838): Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur.
p.421, pl.48, fig.5
Ehrenberg, C G (1838): Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur.  p.421, pl.48, fig.5
Literature documentations
 
Lord, J E (1884): Microscopical News and Northern Microscopist 4
Lord, J E (1884): Microscopical News and Northern Microscopist 4
Displaying items 1 - 1 of 22
Observation images
 
Image courtesy of ANSP (Jersabek et al. 2003) [Ref.15798]; females, ventral (1136) and lateral (774) views, and trophi (923 ventral view)
 Image courtesy of ANSP (Jersabek et al. 2003) <a href='../../Reference/Index/15798' target='_blank'>[Ref.15798]</a>; females, ventral (1136) and lateral (774) views, and trophi (923 ventral view)
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Buhmann, D, 1981 Institut für Zoologie  
Chengalath, R;C H Fernando;W Koste, 1973 Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station of Sri Lanka (Ceylon)24 
De Beauchamp, P M, 1907 Archives de Zoologie Experimentale(ser. 4) 6 
De Manuel, J, 1990 Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears33 
De Smet, W H, 1989 Natuurwetenschappelijk Tijdschrift69 
Donner, J, 1949 Archiv für Hydrobiologie42Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Ehrenberg, C G, 1838 Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Furcularia forficula Ehrenberg, 1838
Godske Eriksen, B, 1969 Acta Zoologica Fennica125 
Harring, H K;F J Myers, 1924 Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters21
Hauer, J, 1937 Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement15 
Hudson, C T;P H Gosse, 1886 The Rotifera; or wheel-animalcules, both British and foreign.I+II 
Jersabek, C D, 1996 Berichte der naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereinigung Salzburg11Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Jersabek, C D, 2003 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers74Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Jersabek, C D;E Bolortsetseg, 2010 Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia159Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Jersabek, C D;H Segers;B J Dingmann, 2003 The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Special Publications20Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Koste, W, 1976 Osnabrücker naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen4Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1830)
Koste, W, 1978 Rotatoria. Die Rädertiere Mitteleuropas. Ein Bestimmungswerk, begründet von Max Voigt. Überordnung Monogononta.  
Koste, W;K Wulfert, 1964 Limnologica (Berlin)2 
Lord, J E, 1884 Microscopical News and Northern Microscopist4 
Malekzadeh-Viayeh, R, 2010 Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences8 
Displaying items 1 - 20 of 28
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Displaying items 0 - 0 of 0
IUILocality(sorted ascending)
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  Littoral microhabitats / Pond, freshwater24.08.1986CJ unpubl. / - / Unpublished Information, own observations (CJ)1
F
  Open water / Pond, freshwater (tropical)05.10.2004Literature / - / Published Information1
L
  Macrophytes (Hippuris, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, Ranunculus) / Pond, freshwater22.07.2005Expedition, Literature / - / Published Information1
L
  Open water / Pond, freshwater29.08.2007CJ unpubl. / - / Unpublished Information, own observations (CJ)1
F
  Littoral microhabitats / Crater lake, freshwater (tropical)28.12.2004Literature / - / Published Information1
L
var. Mud surface / Pond, freshwater (alpine)26.08.1990Literature / - / Published Information130
L
  - / Stream, freshwater01.01.1900Literature / - / Published Information1
figs. 8a,b already published Chengalath, Fernando & Koste (1973): Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), 24 (figs.71,72). Fig.2 is the trophus of C. tenuiseta as published by Wulfert (1937): Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 31 (fig.6), and again by Koste (1985), then sub C. tenuiseta, by Koste (1985): Mikrokosmos, 74 (fig.5b).
L
  Open water (tychoplanktonic) / Pond, freshwater (artificial)13.08.2021CJ unpubl. / - / Unpublished Information, own observations (CJ)1
F
  Macrophytes (Myriophyllum, Utricularia) / Pond, freshwater21.07.2005Expedition, Literature / - / Published Information2052
L
  Water ferns (Salvinia molesta, Azolla sp.), and water lenses (Lemna spp.), interrhizon / Drainage ditch, freshwater11.02.2001Expedition, Literature / - / Published Information2308
L
  Open water / Pond, freshwater04.08.2011CJ unpubl. / - / Unpublished Information, own observations (CJ)1
F
  Macrophytes (Elodea) / Crater lake, freshwater01.05.2001Expedition, Literature / - / Published Information260
L
  Stream bottom: POM (sand, gravel, mud) / Stream, freshwater (alpine)01.10.2010EX_Gletscherbäche / 2010 / Austria, Hohe Tauern (Alps)130
F
  - / Lake, freshwater17.06.1940Collection, Literature / - / Specimen preparations including published info2048
C
  - / Lake, freshwater18.06.1940Collection, Literature / - / Specimen preparations including published info2048
C
  Littoral microhabitats / Lake, freshwater (subalpine)02.08.2018CJ in litt. / - / Unpublished Information, in correspondence1
F
  Stream bottom / Stream, freshwater (glacial)01.08.2010EX_Gletscherbäche / 2010 / Austria, Hohe Tauern (Alps)1
F
  Stream bottom / Stream, freshwater (glacial)01.10.2010EX_Gletscherbäche / 2010 / Austria, Hohe Tauern (Alps)1
F
  - / Stream, freshwater26.11.1936Collection / - / Specimen preparations2048
C
  Open water / Pond, freshwater (artificial)17.07.2019CJ unpubl. / - / Unpublished Information, own observations (CJ)1
F
Displaying items 1 - 20 of 34
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ANSP 0774 Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Orig.Id.: Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1830)
 female1 
ANSP 0923 Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Orig.Id.: Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1830)
 trophi3 
ANSP 1136 Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Orig.Id.: Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1830)
 females3 
CDJ UB138 Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
Orig.Id.: Cephalodella forficula (Ehrenberg, 1838)
 trophi1 
Displaying items 1 - 4 of 4
Geographical Range:
Cosmopolitan, including Antarctic and Pacific regions.
Macrohabitat:
Crater lake, freshwater; Crater lake, freshwater (tropical); Drainage ditch, freshwater; Lake, freshwater; Lake, freshwater (subalpine); Pond, freshwater; Pond, freshwater (alpine); Pond, freshwater (artificial); Pond, freshwater (tropical); Stream, freshwater; Stream, freshwater (alpine); Stream, freshwater (glacial); Tap water;
Microhabitat:
Littoral microhabitats; Macrophytes (Elodea); Macrophytes (Hippuris dominant); Macrophytes (Hippuris, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, Ranunculus); Macrophytes (Myriophyllum); Macrophytes (Myriophyllum, Utricularia); Moss (submersed); Mud surface; Open water; Open water (tychoplanktonic); Periphyton; Stream bottom; Stream bottom: POM (sand, gravel, mud); Water ferns (Salvinia molesta, Azolla sp.), and water lenses (Lemna spp.), interrhizon;
Temperature:
12.80°C to 30.30°C, avg=20.55°C, n=15
Redox:
-128.00mV to -10.00mV, avg=-61.67mV, n=6
Oxygen:
5.80mg/l to 10.30mg/l, avg=8.26mg/l, n=11
Conductivity:
11.00µs/cm to 1244.00µs/cm, avg=289.13µs/cm, n=15
Saturation:
59.90% to 145.00%, avg=107.78%, n=11
TDS:
16.00mg/l to 615.00mg/l, avg=188.14mg/l, n=7
PH:
6.40 to 9.20, avg=7.82, n=16
Salinity:
0.00ppt to 0.60ppt, avg=0.17ppt, n=7
Ecology summary:
Periphytic and benthic in stagnant and slow running freshwater; most common on mud in limnosaprobic environments; rarely in athalassic saline waters; among detritus-rich sediments and submerged vegetation; saprobelic (Jersabek & Bolortsetseg, 2010) [Ref.18457]. Single observation of morph with pigmentless eye from tap water (Jersabek, unpubl.).
Food:
Diatoms.
Main Region(sorted ascending)
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Afrotropis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
Antarctis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -Ant: Dartnall 2003, S.Georgia
Australis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
Nearctis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
NearctisNA4 AlleghanyNorth AmericaUnited States of AmericaPennsylvaniaMonroe Co.
NearctisNA4 AlleghanyNorth AmericaUnited States of AmericaPennsylvaniaNorthampton Co.
Neotropis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
Orientalis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
Pacific- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
PacificHawaiianPacific (Oceania)United States of America (Hawaii)HawaiiHawaii Co.
PacificHawaiianPacific (Oceania)United States of America (Hawaii)HawaiiOahu Co.
PacificPolynesianPacific (Oceania)FijiNorthern DivisionTaveuni
PacificPolynesianPacific (Oceania)VanuatuPénamaAmbae (Aoba)
PacificPolynesianPacific (Oceania)VanuatuShéfaEfate
Palaearctis- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -- n.s. -
PalaearctisP1 EuropeanEuropeAustriaKärntenBezirk Spittal a.d. Drau
PalaearctisP1 EuropeanEuropeAustriaNiederösterreichBezirk Baden
PalaearctisP1 EuropeanEuropeAustriaOberösterreichBezirk Kirchdorf a.d. Krems
PalaearctisP1 EuropeanEuropeAustriaSalzburgFlachgau
PalaearctisP1 EuropeanEuropeAustriaSalzburgPinzgau
Displaying items 1 - 20 of 27